DNA tells a story. Gain insight.

Learn how genes impact your health!

Why is it important to pay attention to my Gene Environment?

The current nutrigenomic landscape is an exciting field of study that explores the interaction between nutrition and gene behavior or expression. Advances in technology and research have opened up new possibilities for understanding how our diet and lifestyle choices can influence our genetic makeup and overall health.

Genetic Testing and Analysis: Genetic testing has become more accessible and affordable, allowing individuals to gain insights into their genetic variations that may impact their response to certain nutrients or genetic markers related to metabolism, nutrient absorption, and other factors relevant to obesity, sleep and stress.  In addition, nutrigenomics can help us understand our relationship with healthy aging, fitness practices and immune function.


Learn More About Your DNA

How Genes Affect You

No two people have the same fingerprint. Like our fingerprints, our genetic variations are unique identifiers which make us different from every other person. It's the variations in genes that make us who we are. From our gender; the color of our hair, eyes and skin; the types of foods that work best with our bodies; and even the type of exercise designed to maximize our individual performance, our genes are the instruction manual for the creation and maintenance of our bodies.

Our genes are composed of combinations of protein bases. While there are only four possible bases, they can be combined in billions of ways to code for countless functions in the body. These four bases make up the DNA alphabet and combine to form words and phrases that give instructions to your body for everything from how your cells function to the color of your hair. Sometimes, when cells in the body replicate to make new cells, mistakes are made. By changing just one letter or just one base, the gene now has a totally new meaning and function. These variations are called single nucleotide polymorphisms (or SNPs).

These small variations in DNA are expressed in many ways. They can influence how we metabolize food and what types of exercise are best suited for our bodies. By identifying our own unique gene variations, we can customize lifestyle approaches and nutritional supplementation to maximize our genetic potential promoting optimal health never before achieved.

What Can I do?

By understanding genetic variations, researchers have identified specific dietary interventions that may optimize gene expression, promote health, and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

Numerous studies have investigated the relationship between gene-diet interactions and their impact on health outcomes. These studies analyze how specific dietary components, such as vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and macronutrients, interact with genetic variations to influence metabolic processes, inflammation, oxidative stress, and other biological pathways.  The importance of this research is the revelation of the role common nutrients and lifestyle habits take in influencing those genes expression, both today and over time.  This information, regarding epigenetic nutrients, has influenced the perspective of practitioners to start to paying closer attention to day to day

Epigenetic Nutrition: Epigenetics refers to changes in gene expression that occur without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Nutrigenomics explores how diet and lifestyle factors can modify epigenetic markers, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, and potentially impact gene expression patterns. This understanding and application of select or personalized nutrients and diet has significant implications for disease prevention and management.

Epigenetic nutrition has implications for various areas of health, including weight management, cardiovascular health, metabolic disorders, and personalized dietary interventions. Researchers are exploring how specific dietary components, functional foods, and dietary patterns can modulate gene expression and improve health outcomes.

While nutrigenomics shows promise, several challenges remain. Interpreting complex genetic data requires expertise, and the translation of research findings into practical dietary recommendations is an ongoing process. The impact of genetic variations on health outcomes is often influenced by multiple genes and complex gene-environment interactions, making it challenging to establish clear cause-and-effect relationships.

Ethical Considerations: As nutrigenomics advances, ethical considerations surrounding genetic privacy, data security, and the responsible use of genetic information become increasingly important. Ensuring informed consent, protecting genetic data, and maintaining transparency in research and commercial applications are crucial.

In summary, the current nutrigenomic landscape is an evolving field that holds great potential for understanding the intricate relationship between nutrition and gene behavior or expression. Continued research, technological advancements, and collaboration among scientists, healthcare professionals, and genetic counselors will contribute to further advancements in personalized nutrition and improved health outcomes.


Mental Health

Genetics plays a crucial role in how our bodies grow and age, especially when it comes to our hormones, neurotransmitters and diet.  In combination, they have an impact on our stress and sleep response.  According to current research, nearly 70 percent of office visits today and a large percentage of prescriptions today are to help manage sleep and emotional liability. Some of these responses are a result of genetics. Variations in our genetic code can have both positive and negative effects on how our bodies manage stress and hormones. For example, one particular gene variation, BDNF, plays a role in comfort food eating and decreased learning, while another, HTR2311, codes for poor response to pharmaceutical intervention to support a healthy mental outlook.

Depression is a feature of some psychiatric syndromes such as major depressive disorder but it may also be a normal reaction to certain life events.  A recent identification of obesity predisposing genes that are highly expressed in the brain raises the possibility of their genetic contribution to depression. Multiple variations contribute to polygenic obesity and may contribute to depression.  Insomnia, excessive sleeping, fatigue, aches, pains, digestive problems or reduced energy may also be present. Most likely you don't know if you have these gene variations, which means you don't know what actions you can take to help maintain your optimal health.

Which genes are related to mental and emotional health?

FAIM2 Some variants are protective in brain aging, responsive to mixed fatty acids for brain health
SEC16B Required for protein transfer resulting in healthy energy metabolism within the mitochondria 
ETV5 This gene influences dopaminergic neurotransmission affecting startle response, attention and sleep
MC4R313 This genes is associated with a capacity for efficient energy utilization and improved satiety signals
BDNF This protein is found in regions of the brain that control eating, drinking and body weight
TAS2R38-98 This gene controls the ability to taste glucosinolates, bitter-tasting compounds found in plants of the family Brassica. Some variants are accompanied by the desire to eat salt to mask bitter flavor 
MC4R This gene is associated with the appetite-stimulating effects of the enzyme AgRP, a neuropeptide of the brain
TAS2R38-66 This gene controls feeding disinhibition, restraint and hunger 
HTR2A This gene is a subtype of the serotonin receptor A and affects neural activity, perception, cognition and mood and emotional control
NEGR1 This gene is related to neurological activity in the hypothalamus
LEP039 This gene regulates leptin which is secreted by white adipocytes for regulation of body weight
DRD2277 This gene inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity and is involved in the regulation of appetite and growth hormone 
DRD2497 This gene controls the synthesesof dopamine in the brain 
COMT Breaks down catecholamines such as dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine, related to emotional patterns 
NBPF3 Neuroblastoma breakpoint family, member 3 associated with pyridoxine clearance 
FUT2 Responsible for B-12 metabolism and glutathione activity related to intrinsic factor and bacterial adhesion 
MTHFR Associated with Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency

Mental Health Facts

  • Approximately 1 in 5 adults in the U.S.—43.8 million, or 18.5%—experiences mental illness in a given year. (Source: NAMI)
  • Serious mental illness costs America $193.2 billion in lost earnings per year. (Source:  AJP)

  • Half of all chronic mental illness begins by age 14; three-quarters by age 24. Despite effective treatment, there are long delays—sometimes decades—between the first appearance of symptoms and when people get help.  (Source: JAMA Psychiatry)
  • Five major mental illneses, depression, bipolar disorder, ADHD, schizophrenia and autism, are traceable to the same inherited genetic variations, according to the largest genome-wide study of its kind.  These variations account for 17-28 percent of mental illness risk.  (Source: Nature Genetics)

Mental Health News

  • Brian Inj. - Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in ANKK1 and the Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene Affect Cognitive Outcome Shortly After Traumatic Brain Injury Read More
  • American Journal of Epidemiology - Risk of Alcohol Dependency:  A Huge Gene-Disease Association Review Read More
  • Molecular Psychiarty - Serotonin Transporter Gene Variation Impacts Innate Fear Processing Read More

Mental Health Research

  • Discoveries in genetics and neuroscience can be expected to lead to better models that provide improved representation of the complexity of the brain and behaviour and the development of both. There are likely to be profound implications for clinical practice.  Read More
  • The DRD2 gene has been implicated in Tourette's syndrome (TS), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and certain symptoms associated with affective disorders and schizophrenia. Further, DRD2 variants have been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) and in iatrogenically-induced movement disorders, as well as in certain migraineurs. Read More
  • Blood Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels are influenced by both addiction and mood disorders, as well as somatic conditions, gender, and genetic polymorphisms, leading to a widely varying results.  Read More
  • 5-HT2A Gene variants moderate the association between PTSD and reduced default mode network connectivity.  Read More
  • This study demonstrates the contribution of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism to individual differences in well-being and suggests a potential psychobiological pathway from dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems to happiness.  Read More
  • Homocysteine and stroke risk:  Modifying Effect of MethylenetetrahydrofolateReductase (MTHFR) C677T Polymorphism and Folic Acid Intervention.  Read More
  • Melanocortins are expressed in the hypothalamus and play an important role in regulating appetite. Stimulation of brain melanocortin results in a decrease in food intake and weight; similarly, mutations and defects of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene have been implicated in animal models and human studies of weight gain.  Read More
  • The convergence of results from both the trio and combined trio-case-control analyses suggest the possibility that our findings at BTBD3, FAIM2 and ADCY8 are genes involved in the pathogenesis of OCD.  Read More

Weight Management

You do everything you can to maintain a healthy body weight. You exercise. You eat healthy foods. You might even take supplements. But sometimes it's not just what you do that makes a difference; it could be what you're made of — literally.

Genetics plays a crucial role in how efficiently we burn fat with exercise and how capable our bodies are to perform aerobic exercise. Variations in our genetic code can have both positive and negative effects on how our bodies react to the foods we eat and the workouts we put ourselves through. For example, one particular gene variation — FTO — could lead to increased fat accumulation in men and higher fat mass in women.

Which genes are related to weight management?

FTO609 Functionally this gene demonstrates lower responsiveness to satiety signals and increased risk for obesity  
FTO812 Shown to contribute to early onset of obesity in both adolescents and adults
FTO980 This gene functions to reverse damage to DNA & RNA by oxidative demethylation
TAS1R3 Can cause an inability to taste sucrose along with the tendency to over-eat due to signaling response to feeding 
ADIPOQ56 Important positive adipokine involved in the control of fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity
ADIPOQ539 This gene is an important adipokine involved in the control of fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity and is expressed exclusively in adipose tissue
BDNF The BDNF protein is found in the regions of the brain that control eating, drinking and body weight
PCSK1_2 This gene functions in the proteolytic activation of hormones and neuropeptide precursors
FAIM2 This gene is associated with energy storage and increased risk of obesity, hyperlipidemia and endothelial dysfunction 
MC4R313 This protein is affected by sensitivity to the hormone leptin and limited by the hormone ghrelin
DRD2 This gene is linked to how the brain processes reward signals 
SEC16B This gene is linked to hepatic lipase activity and risk of extreme obesity in childhood and obesity in adults for certain genotypes
TMEM18  This gene has been identified as a strong indicator of the risk advanced glycation end-products, childhood obesity and obesity in adults
NEGR1 Heavily involved with the risk for childhood obesity
SH2B1 This gene influences cytokine and growth factor signaling as well as cellular transformation 
PPARD Promotes Beta Oxidation of fatty acids for energy
PPARG Key regulator of adipogenesis, lipid and glucose homeostasis 
KCTD10 This gene plays a key role in the activity of this enzymes initiation of pre-adipocytes to become mature adipocytes
KCTD15 This gene plays a role in inhibition of early adipogenesis 
LEP039 This gene regulates leptin, leptin is a protein secreted by white adipocytes for the regulation of body weight 
LEPR Direct correlation with resting metabolic rate
INSIG2 The gene mediates feedback control of cholesterol sythesis by controlling HMG CoA Reductase  



Weight Management Facts

  • Obesity is a serious public health problem asscociated with an increased risk of various chronic diseases such as hypertention, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.  It is estimated over one-third of adults in the US are obese, whereas another one-third are overweight.  (Source:  BioMed Central)
  • In the past 5 years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified nearly 4 common genetic loci associated with BMI and obesity in European middle-aged adults.  (Source:  Nutrition & Diabetes)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6-8% of women of reproductive age.  Fifty percent of PCOS patients are overweight or obese. (Source:  Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology)
  • Recent decades have witnessed advances in food manufacturing, market practices and growing cultural and technological adaption.  These changes also contribute to increasing obesity in the United States.  (Source:  American Sociological Review)

Weight Management News

  • Scientific America - Crave Sugar? Maybe It's in Your Genes. Read More
  • Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - No Casual Ties Between Being Thin, Alzheimer's Read More
  • Time - Studies have identified over 30 canidate genes on 12 chromosomes associated with body mass index Read More 
  • GQ - Are your genes screwing up your diet?  Read More

Weight Management Research

  • A Pro12Ala substitution in PPARgamma2 associated with decreased receptor activity, lower body mass index and improved insulin sensitivity. Read More
  • The role PPARgamma in high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Read More
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 gene polymorphism (Pro12Ala) beneficially influences insulin resistance and its tracking from childhood to adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Read More
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gammaPro12Ala polymorphism and the association with blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: skaraborg hypertension and diabetes project. Read More
  • The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) has been shown to be associated with obesity and to influence apetite regulation.  Read More 
  • Primary nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common forms of chronic liver diseases and is associated with insulin-resistant states such as diabetes and obesity.  Read More
  • One common variant of the MC4R gene, carried by 22% of the general population, causes reduced MC4R protein level in the hypothalamus of the brain.  Carriers of this variant have both increased appetite and decreased satiety.  Read More
  • INSIG2 gene polymorphism is associated with increased subcutaneous fat in women and poor response to resistance training in men.  Read More
  • The genetic variation in the response to saccharin and dilute sucrose solutions is largely explained by polymorphisms in the Tas1r3 gene that encodes for the T1R3 sweet receptor.  Read More
  • The obesity gene NEGR1 is associated with white matter integrity in healthy young adults.  This study began with a multi-locus approach testing how a number of common genetic risk factors for obesity at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level may jointly influence white matter integrity throughout the brain and found a wide spread genetic effect.  Read More
  • Novel genes found to be associated with obesity are regulated by a HFD and the mRNA levels of KCTD15 is dependent on the nutritional status. These results suggest a potential role of these genes in the regulation of energy balance.  Read More
  • A number of studies have provided data to indicate that there is a strong association between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and performance in multiple athletic cohorts.  Read More 
  • Human obesity is due to a complex interaction among environmental, behavioral, developmental and genetic factors, including the interaction of leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR). Several LEPR mutations and polymorphisms have been described in patients with early onset severe obesity and hyperphagic eating behavior.  Read More

Heart Health

When it comes to heart health, there are a number of things you can do to promote your health. Reduce sugar, eat more fiber, exercise, and do it safely. Stop smoking. Relax. This is a lifestyle, however just as important are gene variations associated with heart health.  Our genetic variations can have both positive and negative effects on our heart.  The negative impact variation combined with an unhealthy diet or lifestyle may negatively influence overall health. 

Which genes are related to heart health?

FAIM2 Involved in the programmed cell death induced by the fatty acid synthase (FAS) enzyme and various apoptotic stimuli
SEC16B Required for protein transfer resulting in healthy energy metabolism within the mitochondria
FTO609 This FTO enzyme has been associated with oxidative stress and demethylase activity and may be linked to cellular repair
FTO812 Functions to reverse damage by oxidative demethylation that can lead to obesity and other hormonal metabolic concerns
FTO980 This gene functions to reverse damage to DNA & RNA by oxidative demethylation
INSIG2 Mediates feedback control of cholesterol synthesis by controlling HMG CoA Reductase. Insulin-induced receptor-2 is affected by adiponectin levels
ETV5 Plays a role in regulating cellular systems associated with obesity, triglycerides, cell communication and immunity
INTERGENIC An important enzyme in HDL metabolism 
ALDH2 Mitochondrial enzyme responsible for breaking down acetaldehyde produced by ethanol
APOA2 Prolific protein of high density lipoprotein particles
DHCR7 Catalyzes the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol using NADPH as a cofactor
LIPC Dual functions of triglyceride ligand/bridging, ecodes hepatic triglyceride lipase
ACTN3 Protein codes primarily in skeletal muscle and functions as a structural component of sacromere Z line 
SH2B1 Influences cytokine and growth factor receptor signaling as well as cellular transforamtion 
MMAB Defect in the synthesis of adenosylcobalamin
PPARD52 Promotes beta oxidation of fatty acids for energy 
MTHFR Catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methione 
PCSK1_2 Functions in the proteolytic activation of hormones and neuropeptide precursors; Insulin Insensitivity
KCTD10 & 15 Inhibits pre-adipocytes to become mature adipocytes; key association with C/EBPa
ADIPOQ56 & 39 Positive adipokine involved in the control of fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity; associated with adiponectin deficiency with mutations 
EDN1 A potent peptide hormone regulating cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary and neural tissue tone 
COMT Breaks down catecholamines. Elevated levels of catecholamines can lead to increased heart rate, agitation and impulsive behavior. 
SLC2A2 Elevated Sugar Intake; Elevated Serum Cholesterol
FUT2 Responsible for B-12 metabolism and glutathione activity related to intrinsic factor and bacterial adhesion 
CYP2R1 Cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in nutrient metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids 



Heart Health Facts

  • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading health problem, affecting over 80,000,000 individuals in the United States alone. CVD encompasses a broad range of disorders including diseases of the vasculature, the myocardium, the heart’s electrical circuit, and congenital heart disease. For nearly all of these disorders, inherited DNA sequence variants play a role in conferring risk for disease.  (Source: NCBI)

  • In 2013 heart disease was the leading cause of death in the United States for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and American Indians. For Hispanics, and Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, heart disease is second only to cancer as a cause of death.  (Source: NVSS)

  • An analysis of data spanning 20 years from more than 10,000 U.S. adults found that those who got the recommended amounts of exercise and had adequate vitamin D levels had a 23 percent lower risk of heart attack or stroke.  (Source:  Everyday Health)
  • The results of this study add to the burgeoning evidence of an association between higher BMI and increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases. This finding has relevance for public health policies in many countries with increasing obesity levels.  (Source:  JAMA)

Heart Health News

  • Science Daily - Exosomes isolated from very obese patients behave very differently than those derived from lean patients and may be key players in heightening youths' likelihood of developing atherosclerosis -- which, in turn, places them at higher risk for suffering heart disease and stroke as adults.  Read More
  • Los Angeles Times - Vitamin D linked to lower heart disease risk Read More
  • Circulation - Smoking-related heart disease tied to effects of a single gene. Read More
  • Jama - Harnessing Genomic Biobanks to Understand Obesity in Cardiometabolic Disease
    Prospects and Pitfalls Read More

Heart Health Research

  • Variants in the cholesterol ester transfer protein (LIPC) and lipoprotein lipase genes are predictors of plasma cholesterol response to dietary change. Read More
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an important cause of heart failure with a strong familial component.  Read More
  • The relation between folate status, a common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Read More
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (EDN1) is positively associated with essential hypertension. Read More
  • Combined effects of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism (EDN1) and insulin resistance status on blood pressure and familial risk of hypertension in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Read More
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene polymorphism is a determinant of HDL cholesterol and of the lipoprotein response to a lipid-lowering diet in type 1 diabetes. Read More
  • PPARγ Variant Influences Angiographic Outcome and 10-Year Cardiovascular Risk in Male Symptomatic Coronary Artery Disease Patients.  Read More
  • Cholesteryl ester transfer protein Genotype is associated with higher HDL cholesterol levels and lower risk of coronary heart disease end points in men with HDL deficiency: Veterans Affairs HDL Cholesterol Intervention Trial. Read More
  • The ETV5-related proteomic approach performed in the Hec-1A cell line reinforces a role of this transcription factor in the regulation of the migratory and invasive tumor behavior and points to a modulated response to oxidative stress associated with the promotion of invasion in endometrial cancer.  Read More
  • Sequence variation in TMEM18 in association with body mass index: Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium Targeted Sequencing Study.  Read More
  • Genetic Variant SCL2A2 Is Associated with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease – Assessing the Individual and Cumulative Effect of 46 Type 2 Diabetes Related Genetic Variants Read More
  • Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-specific hormone that is commonly decreased in obese subjects. Furthermore, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) have been associated with metabolic phenotypes. The present study investigated whether the adiponectin gene promoter variant -11391 G/A (rs17300539) could predict the risk of developing traits characterizing the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the impact of weight management.  Read More
  • Recently, more common variants in the PCSK1 gene have been found to be associated with alterations in body mass index, increased circulating proinsulin levels, and defects in glucose homeostasis.  Read More
  • Based on evidence for involvement of SH2B1 in energy homeostasis, rare coding variants in the gene could potentially result in monogenic obesity. Subsequently, we assessed association of the identified variants to obesity in independent study groups. In vitro analyzes of the impact on leptin receptor signalling for the detected variants ensued.  Read More
  • There is growing evidence to indicate that RGPR-p117/SEC16B may be involved in human obesity.  Obesity causes various chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and respiratory disease, osteoarthritis, hypertension, stroke, type II diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, and different types of cancer.  Read More
  • FTO involvement in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy may be specifically related to leptin since neither endothelin-1 nor angiotensin II exerted any effect on FTO protein abundance nor did FTO suppression mitigate the hypertrophic response to either agent. The possibility cannot be excluded that FTO plays a more widespread role in cardiovascular physiology and pathology thereby potentially representing an effective target for therapeutic intervention.  Read More
  • Green Tea Polyphenol Epigallocatechin Gallate Reduces Endothelin-1 Expression and Secretion in Vascular Endothelial Cells: Roles for AMP-Activated Protein Kinase, Akt, and FOXO1.  Read More

Blood Sugar

Blood sugar is vital to human function and must be consistently kept at a steady level to maintain good health. Blood sugar impacts numerous aspects of health, from cognitive function to energy to heart health, and more.

Blood sugar refers to glucose in the blood stream. In order for our cells to get the energy they need to maintain proper bodily functions, we must be able to efficiently move glucose in the blood into our cells. Because of the many critical functions that depend on it, blood sugar levels that are too low or too high are dealt with by the body in an urgent manner.

Some genetic variations are associated with the body's ability to efficiently clear glucose from the blood. A variant of the SLC2A2 gene may encourage a higher resting glucose level. Knowing this can help a person adjust their diet and exercise routines, which can help the body to utilize insulin more efficiently, or possibly receive a recommended nutraceutical to help maintain healthy insulin activity in the body.

Which genes are related to blood sugar?

MC4R Protein affected by sensitivity to the horomone Leptin and limited by the hormone Ghrelin                                
TMEM18 This Gene is responsible for minimizing glycation and oxidative stress when carbohydrates, proteins and fats link.
FTO609 This FTO enzyme has been associated with oxidative stress and demethylase activity and may be linked to cellular repair
FTO812 This Gene functions to reverse damage by oxidative demethylation that may contribute to obesity or other concerns related to hormonal metabolic function.
SH2B1 This Gene influences cytokine and growth factor receptor signaling as well as cellular transformation. Some alleles carry the risk of diminished activity in insulin receptors.
LEP039 This Gene regulates leptin, leptin is a protein secreted by white adipocytes for regulation of body weight.
PCSK1_2 This Gene functions in the proteolytic activation of horomones and neuropeptides precursors.
ADIPOQ56 Important positive adipokine involved in the control of fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity.
LEPR This SNP is a cytokine receptor fot the fat-cell specific hormone leptin.
APOA2 This Gene greatly influences how your body processes fat.
ADIPOQ539 This Gene is an important adipokine involved in the control of fat metabolism and insulin sensitivity.
PPARG Key regulator of adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as lipids and fatty acids.
PPARD52 Master regulator of adipogenesis as well as a potent modulator of whole-body lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.
FTO980 This Gene functions to reverse DNA and RNA damage by oxidative demethylation. It is alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent.
SLC2A2 Major glucose transporter in the mammalian blood-brain barrier.
CYP2R1 Cytochrome P450 enzyme. Involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids.
BCM01 Catalyzesthe oxidative cleavage of beta-carotene into two retinal molecules.
GC Binds to vitamin D and its plasma metabolites. Responsible for transport to target tissues.
BCM01-331 Catalyzesthe oxidative cleavage of beta-carotene into two retinal molecules.



Blood Sugar Facts

  • Diabetes is a lifelong condition that is characterized by a raised blood glucose level.  The are two main types of diabetes:  type 1 and type 2.  Signs of diabetes include an increased sense of thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, weight and muscle loss, cuts or wounds that heal slowly and blurred vison.  Medical News Today 
  • Type 2 diabetes is much more common than type 1 diabetes.  About 90% of people who have diabetes have type 2 diabetes.  PubMed Heath
  • Type 2 diabetes affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, and the numbers have skyrocketed in recent years.  According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of people with diabetes has almost quadrupled in the past few decades, from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014.  Medical News Today
  • When the blood sugar levels rise, for instance following a meal, the pancreas releases insulin.  Insulin enters the bloodstream and ensures that the suagr in the food and drinks we consume is transported from our blood to our cells, where it is transformed into energy for the body.  PubMed Health

Blood Sugar News

  • The Seattle Times--Tumeric to the rescue again:  this time, it might help blood sugar.  Read More
  • U.S. News and World Report-- How sleep helps manage diabetes.  Read More
  • Futurity-- Some of our muscles can 'taste' sugar.  Read More 

Blood Sugar Research

  • Studies have linked high sugar intake with increased risk for a number of diseases.  Importantly, fructose, a component of sugar, has been linked with the developement of features of metabolic syndrome.  This study determined if single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in fructose transport (solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter, memeber 2 (SLCA2A2)...Read More
  • The Drosophila ortholog of TMEM18 regulates insulin and glucagon-like signaling Read More
  • Functional and clinical relevance of novel and known PCSK1 variants for childhood obesity and glucose metabolism Read More
  • A Pro12Ala substitution in PPARgamma2 associated with decreased receptor activity, lower body mass index and improved insulin sensitivity Read More
  • The role PPARgamma in high-fat, diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Read More
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma Pro12Ala polymorphism and the association with blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: skaraborg hypertension and diabetes project. Read More
  • Genetic variant in the glucose transporter type 2 is associated with higher intakes of sugars in two distinct populations.  Read More

Nutrients, Detoxification & Immunity

With the falling levels of estrogen (in women) and testosterone (in men) as we age and its associated premature aging, you may have bone density below a normal level or poor detoxification pathways that may have an impact on hormones, metabolic function, and healthy aging.

Genetics plays a crucial role in how our bodies grow and age, especially when it comes to our metabolism. Variations in our genetic code can have both positive and negative effects on how our body utilizes nutrients. For example, one particular gene variation - GC - could lead to better bone formation and retention with exercise.

Which genes are related to nutrient impact?

ALDH2 Mitochondria; Detoxification of Ethenol
GC; CYP2R1; DHCR7 Vitamin D use; bone density; Cardiovascular Health
TAS2R38 Poor SaitiSatietyals; Detoxification
CYP1A2 Caffeine Metabolism; Cardiovascular Health
NCR3 Poor immune Signals; Inflammatory Response
Intergenic; BCM01; BCM0131 Carotenoid and Tocopherol Metabolism; Oxidation
MCM6 Lactose Intolerance
MMAB; FUT2; NBPF3 Defect in synthesis of B-12; B-6; Homocysteine



Nutrient Facts

  • By the time teens finish their growth spurts around age 17, 90 percent of their adult bone mass is established. (Source: National Institute of Health)
  • Vitamin D has proven to inititate a physiologic response in 36 tissues of the body.  This is because vitamin D affects transcription, which is how proteins are made from your DNA. Vitamin D affects the production of thousands of proteins.  (Source: Vitamin D Council)
  • Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, plays a crucial role in blood formation and the normal functioning of the nervous system.  The vitamin is found in foods derived from animal sources, although some plant-based foods can be fortified with B12 (Source: Live Science)
  • Only 35 percent of American adults consume the recommended daily allowance of calcium. (Source: American Bone Health)

Nutrient News

  • Science News - Baby's calcium might play defining role in adult bone health Read More
  • USA Today - These foods will boost your mood and make you happy Read More
  • Times of India - Have this ONE food for all your vitamin deficiencies Read More
  • Wellbeing - Diet to fit your genes Read More
  • www.drstevenlin.com - The Elephant in the Dental Waiting Room – What is an Oral Health Diet?  Read More 

Nutrient Research

  • A specific DNA sequence within the MCM6 gene called a regulatory element helps control the activity (expression) of a nearby gene called LCT. The LCT gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called lactase. This enzyme helps to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Lactose intolerance in adulthood is caused by gradually decreasing expression of the LCT gene after infancy, which occurs in most humans. Read More
  • NCR3, the protein encoded by this gene is a natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) that may aid NK cells in the lysis of tumor cells. Read More
  • GC and VDR SNPs and Vitamin D levels in Parkinson's disease:  The Relevance to Clinical Features.  Read More
  • Genome-wide association study identifies common variants associated with circulating vitamin E levels.  Read More
  • ALDH2 deficiency is the most common genetic mutation in humans, affecting about 40 percent of East Asians, some 560 million people, or nearly 8 percent of the world's population.  Without a working enzyme, the body cannot clear the toxic acetylaldehyde quickly.  Read More
  • Allelic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency, bone mineral density, and bone fractures. The DHCR7 gene polymorphism may be a predictor for fracture risk. Read More
  • Common Variants in CYP2R1 and GC Genes Predict Vitamin D Concentrations in Healthy Danish Children and Adults. Read More
  • Common genetic determinants of vitamin D insufficiency: a genome-wide association study.  Read More
  • Don't Care For Broccoli? A Bitter Taste Receptor Gene's Variation Suggests An Evolutionary Excuse.  Read More
  • Caffeine is metabolized in the liver by the initial dimetilation process through an enzyme called cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2). This enzyme is responsible for 95 percent of the metabolism process for caffeine. CYP1A2 is characterized by a high variability in its activity, which is also a consequence of differences in our genetic makeup.  Read More
  • The Relationship between BCMO1 Gene Variants and Macular Pigment Optical Density in Persons with and without Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Read More
  • Close to 20% of people carry an FUT2 variation that makes the gut unable to house a robust community of bifidobacteria. This may leave you vulnerable to autoimmune disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, urinary tract infection, Candida overgrowth, B12 deficiency, and some forms of anemia.  Read More
  • Novel variants at KCTD10, MVK, and MMAB genes interact with dietary carbohydrates to modulate HDL-cholesterol concentrations in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network Study.  Read More
  • Genome-wide Association Study of Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Folate, and Homocysteine Blood Concentrations.  Read More